Dodging and burning techniques have been around for over a hundred years. While you may think of these techniques as a method of adjusting and balancing tones, they also serve a more distinct purpose: enhancing and diminishing areas of interest in an image. Psychologically, your eye will be drawn towards bright, colorful areas in an image and away from dark, dull areas. With modern digital processing tools, we can take a 21st century approach to dodging and burning. Here’s a short video on how to accomplish this using Adobe Lightroom.
For a complete tutorial on using brushes in Adobe Lightroom, check out Lightroom: Mastering Brushes & Gradients (video workshop)